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List of Greek and Latin roots in English1List of Greek and Latin roots in EnglishThe following is an alphabetical list of Greek and Latin roots, stems, and prefixes commonly used in English.Some of those used in medicine and medical terminology are not listed here but instead in Wikipedia's List ofmedical roots, suffixes and prefixes. ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZARootMeaning in EnglishOriginlanguageEtymology (root origin)English examplesab-, a-, abs-away fromLatinab "away"abnormal, abrasion, absent,abstain, abstract, aversionac-sharp or pointedLatinacereacupunctureacerb-sharp, bitter, sourLatinacerbusacerbic, exacerbateacid-sour or acidLatinacidusacidosisacr-height, summit, tipGreekἄκρος (ákros) "high", "extreme"acrobatics, acromegaly,acronym, acrophobiaacr-bitter, pungent, sharp, sourLatinacer, acrisacrid, acrimonyacu-sharpLatinacutus, past participle of acuere"to sharpen", from acus "needle"acupuncture, acute,acutifoliatead-, a-, ac-, af-,ag-, al-, ap-, ar-,as-, at-movement to or toward; in addition toLatinad "to", "toward"accept, adapt, affect,approximate, ascendadip-fatLatinadeps, adipis "fat"adiposeaer-air, atmosphereGreekἀήρ (aēr) "air"aeronautics, aerosolaesthet-feeling, sensationGreekaisthētikos "of sense perception"from αἰσθάνεσθαι(aisthanesthai) "to perceive"aesthetics, anaestheticagr-fieldGreekἀγρός (agros) "field"agronomyagri-, -egri-fieldLatinager, agris "field, country"agriculture, peregrinealb-dull whiteLatinalbusalbedo, albino, albumenam-, amat-,amor-love, lovedLatinamor "love" from amāre "tolove"amateur, amorousambi-both, on both sidesLatinambi "on both sides"ambidexterity, ambivalentamic-, -imic-friendLatinamicusamicable, inimicalamph-, amphi-around, about, both, on both sides of, both kindsGreekἀμφί (amphi) "on both sides"amphibian, amphibolic,amphoterismampl-ample, abundant, bountifulLatinamplusamplificationan-, a-not, withoutGreekGreek ἀν-/ἀ- "not"anhydrous, atypicalana-, an-again, against, back, upGreekἀνά (ana) "again", "against"anabaptist, anaphylaxis,anion, anodeandr-male, masculineGreekἀνδρός androsandrogen, android

List of Greek and Latin roots in English2anem-windGreekἄνεμος anemosanemometeranim-breathLatinanima "breath"animal, animationann-, -enn-year, yearlyLatinannus "year"anniversary, annual,biannual, millenniumant-, anti-against, opposed to, preventiveGreekἀντί anti "against"antagonist, antibiotic,antipodesante-, anti-before, in front of, prior toLatinante "before", "against"antebellum, antediluvian,anticipate, antiquariananth-flowerGreekἄνθος (anthos) "flower"anther, anthologyanthrop-humanGreekἄνθρωπος (anthropos) "man"anthropology,anthropomorphicap-, apo-away from, separate, at the farthest pointGreekἀπό (apo) "from, away, un-,quite"apocrine, apogee, apostasyaqu-waterLatinaquaaquamarine, aquarium,aqueduct, aquiferar-plow, tillLatinărārearablear-be dryLatinārēre "be dry or parched"aridarche-, archi-rulerGreekἀρχή (archē) "rule" (incompounds: ἀρχε-, ἀρχι-)archangel, archetypearchae-, arche-ancientGreekἀρχαῖος arkhaios "ancient" from archaeology or archeology,arkhē "beginning"archaicarct-Relating to the North Pole or the region near it;relating to cold; used as the scientific name ofsome bear species, e.g. Ursus arctos horribilisGreekἄρκτος arktos "bear"Arctic Oceanargent-silverLatinargentumargent, Argentinaarist-excellenceGreekἀρετή, ἄριστος aretē, aristosaristocracyarthr-jointGreekἄρθρον (arthron)arthritis, arthropodastr-star, star-shapedGreekἄστρον (astron) "star"asterisk, astrology,astronomy, disasterathl-prizeGreekἄθλος (athlos) "contest, feat"athlete, pentathlonaudi-hearing, listening, soundLatinaudire "to hear"audible, auditorium,auditoryaug-, auct-grow, increaseLatinaugēre, auctus "to increase"augend, augmentationaur-relating to gold, or gold-coloredLatinaurum "gold"aureate, aureoleauri-relating to the earLatinauris "ear"auricleaut-, auto-self; directed from withinGreekαὐτός (autos) "self", "same"autograph, automobile,autonomyavi-birdLatinavisaviary, kἄξιος (axios) "worth"axiology

List of Greek and Latin roots in English3BRootMeaning in EnglishOrigin languageEtymology (root origin)English examplesbac-rod-shapedLatinfrom baculum "rod"bacilla, bacteriabar-weight, pressureGreekβάρος (baros)barograph, barometerbasi-at the bottomGreekfrom βαίνω, I walk, march, βάσις basic, basis"step"bathy-,batho-deep, depthGreekβαθύς (bathús, bathýs)batholith, bathyscaphebe-, beat-blessLatinbeare, beatusbeatificationbell-warLatinbellum, belliantebellum, bellicose, belligerentben-good, wellLatinbene (adverb)benefit, benignitybi-twoLatinbis, "twice"; bini, "in twos"binary, binoculars, bigamy, biscottibib-drinkLatinbibere, bibitusimbibebibl-bookGreekβιβλίον (biblíon) "book"bible, bibliographybio-lifeGreekβίος (bíos) "life"biography, biology, biologist, ος (blennos)blennophobia, blennospermablast-germ, embryo, bud, cell withnucleusGreekβλασταίνω (blastainō), "I putforth shoots"blastula, fibroblast, osteoblast, sideroblastbon-goodLatinbonusbonify, bonitarybor-northGreek / Latin(boreas)Greek βορρᾶς (borras) "the north borealiswind"botan-plantGreekβοτάνη, βότανον (botanē,botanon)botanybov-cow, oxLatinbos, bovisbovinebrachi-armGreekβραχίων (brakhíōn)brachial artery, brachiosaurusbrachy-shortGreekβραχύς (brakhús, brakhýs)brachydactylybrady-slowGreekβραδύς (bradús, ν (brágkhion, bránkhion)branchiopod, nudibranchbrev(i)-brief, short (time)Latinbrevis, breviareabbreviation, brevitybriz-nod, slumberGreekβρίζω (brizō)brom-oatsGreekβρόμος, βρόμη (brómos, bróme)"oats"Bromus ramosusbrom-stenchGreekβρόμος (brómos) χος (brógkhos, brónkhos)bronchitis, bronchus, bronchiolebront-thunderGreekβροντή (brontē)Brontosaurusbucc-cheek, mouth, cavityLatinbuccabuccal, buccinator musclebulb-bulbousLatinbulbusbulbous, bulbulebull-bubble, flaskLatinbulla, "bubble"ebullient, ebullismburs-pouch, purseLatinbursabursa, bursar, bursary, disburse

List of Greek and Latin roots in English4CRootMeaning in EnglishOriginlanguageEtymology (root origin)English examplescac-badGreekκακός (kakos)cacophonycad-, -cid-, cas-fallLatincadere, casusaccident, cadence, casecaed-, -cid-, caes-, cut-cis-Latincaedere, caesuscaesura, incisorcalc-stoneLatin andGreekfrom Latin calx "lime", and from Greekχάλιξ (khalix) "pebble" "limestone"calcite, calcium, calculuscall-, calli-beautifulGreekfrom Greek κάλλος kallos "beauty"calligraphycalor-heatLatincalor "heat"caloriecalyp-coverGreekκαλύπτειν al, cameracamp-fieldLatincampus "field", "level ground"champion, campaigncan-dogLatincaniscanine, Canis Majorcan-, -cin-, cant-singLatincanerecantata, canto, cantorcand-glowing, iridescentLatincandere "to be white or glisten"candela, candid, candle, candor,incandescent, incendiary, incensecap-, -cip-, capt-,-cept-hold, takeLatincapere, captus "take or hold" (vowelchanges from a to i in compounds)capture, captive, conception, recipientcapit-, -cipit-headLatincaput, capitis "head"capital, decapitation, precipitationcapr-goatLatincaper, capriCapricorn, caprinecaps-box, caseLatincapsacapsulecarbo-coalLatincarbo, carboniscarboncarcer-jailLatincarcer, carcerareincarcerationcarcin-cancer (disease)Latin fromGreekLatin from Greek καρκίνος (karkinos)"crab"carcinogenic, carcinomacardi-relating to the heartGreekκαρδιά kardia "heart"cardiograph, cardiologycardin-hingeLatincardo, cardiniscardinalcarn-fleshLatincaro, carniscarnal, carnival, carnivorecarp-relating to fruitGreekκαρπός (karpos) "fruit"carpologycarp-relating to the wristGreekκαρπός (karpos) "wrist"carpal, carpal tunnel syndromecast-pureLatinfrom Latin castus "chaste"caste, castigate, castratecata-, cat-downGreekfrom Greek κατά (katá) "down"catabolic, catalyst, catastrophe,catatonia, cathode, cationcaten-chainLatincatenacatenary, concatenationcathar-pureGreekκαθαρός (katharos)catharsiscaud-tailLatincaudacaudalcaus-, -cus-cause or motiveLatincausacausativecav-hollowLatincavus "hollow"cave, cavity, excavationced-, cess-goLatincedere, cessusprocession, recede, secede

List of Greek and Latin roots in English5celer-quickLatinceler, celerareacceleration, celeritycen-newGreekκαινός (kainos)Cenozoiccen-emptyGreekκενός (kenos)cenotaphLatincensere "to estimate"censuscenscent-hundredLatincentumcent, centennial, centurioncenten-hundred ntesimuscentesimal, centesimationcentr-centerGreekκέντρον (kéntron) "needle", "spur"eccentriccephal-headGreekκεφαλή (kephale)cephalic, cephalopod, encephalogramceram-clayGreekκέραμος (keramos)ceramiccerat-hornGreekκέρας, κέρατος (keras, keratos) "horn"keratincern-siftLatincernerediscern, secerncervic-relating to the neck,relating to the cervixLatincervix, cervicis "neck"cervix, cervicalceter-otherLatinceteruset ceterachir-of the hand or handsGreekχείρ (kheir) "hand"chiral, chiropractic, chiropterachelon-relating to a turtleGreekχελώνη (khelōne) "tortoise"cheloniachlor-greenGreekχλωρός (khlōros) "green"chlorine, chlorophyll, chloroplastchore-relating to danceGreekχορεία khoreia "dancing in unison" fromχορός khoros "chorus"choreographychord-cordLatin andGreekchorda "rope" from χορδή (chordē)chordatachrom-colorGreekχρῶμα (chrōma) "color"chromium, chromosome, monochromechron-timeGreekχρόνος (chronos)chronic, chronology, chronometerchrys-goldGreekχρυσός (khrusos) "gold"chrysolitecili-eyelashLatinciliumcilia, superciliouscine-motionGreekκινέω (kineō)cinemaciner-ashLatincinis, cinerisincinerationcing-, cinct-girdLatincingere, aroundLatincircumcircumcise, circumference,circumlocution, circumnavigatecirr-orangeGreekκιρρός (kirros)cirrhosiscirr-curl, lityclad-branchGreekκλάδος (klados)cladeclar-clearLatinclarus, clarareclarity, declarationclast-brokenGreekκλαστός (klastos)iconoclast, osteoclastclaud-, -clud-,claus-, -clus-closeLatinclaudere, claususclause, exclusion, include

List of Greek and Latin roots in English6clav-keyGreekfrom Greek κλείς kleis "key" fromκλείειν, (kleiein) "to close"cl(e)ist-closedGreekκλειστός (kleistos)cleithr-bar, keyGreekclement-mildLatinclemens, clementisclemency, inclementclin-bed, lean, reclineLatin-clinaredeclination, inclinedcochl-shellGreekκόχλος (kochlos)cochleacoel-hollowGreekκοῖλος (koilos)blastocoel, coelom, spongocoelcogn-knowLatincognoscerecognitive, cognizant, recognizecol-strainLatincolare, lumcollarcolor-colorLatincolorcoloration, coloratura, tricolorcon-, co-, col-,com-, cor-with, togetherLatincumcoagulate, collide, compress, connect,contain, corrodecon-coneGreekκῶνος (kōnos)conic, conical, nstLatincontracontradiction, contrastcopr-dungGreekκόπρος (kopros)coprolite, coprophagia, coprophiliacorac-ravenGreekκόραξ, κόρακος (korax, korakos)coracoidcord-heartLatincor, cordisaccord, cordialcorn-hornLatincornucornea, cornucopia, unicorncoron-crownLatincorona, coronarecorona, coronationcorpor-bodyLatincorpus, corporiscorporation, corpse, corpusclecortic-barkLatincortex, ς (kosmos)cosmic, cosmonautGreekκοσμητ- (kosmet-)cosmetics, cosmetologycosmet-clavichord, clavicle, Greekκοτύλη (kotulē)cotyledon-cracy, -cratgovernment, rule,authorityGreekκράτος (kratos)democracycrani-skullGreekκρανίον re-makeLatincreare, creatuscreation, creaturecred-believe, trustLatincredere, credituscredentials, credibility, creditor,incrediblecrep-boot, shoeGreekκρηπίς, κρηπίδος (krēpis, krēpidos)cribr-sieveLatincribrum, cribrareringGreekκρίκος (krikos)cris-, crit-judgeGreekκρίσις (crisis)crisis, criticcrisp-curledLatincrispuscrispatecribble, cribrate

List of Greek and Latin roots in , tasselGreekκροσσός (krossos)cruc-crossLatincrux, cruciscrucial, crucifix, crucify, excruciatingcrur-leg, shankLatincrus, cruriscruralcrypt-hiddenGreekκρυπτός (kruptos)cryptic, cryptographycten-combGreekκτείς, κτενός (kteis, ktenos)ctenophorecub-cubeGreekκύβος (kubos)cubic, cuboidcub-lieLatincubareincubation, succubaculin-kitchenLatinculinaculinaryculp-blame, faultLatinculpaculpable, exculpatecune-wedgeLatincuneuscuneiformcurr-, curs-runLatincurrere, cursusconcurrent, current, cursive, , pointLatincuspis, Greekκυανός (kuanos)cyanidecycl-circularGreekκύκλος (kuklos)bicycle, cycle, cyclonecylind-rollGreekκύλινδρος (kulindros)cylindercyn-dogGreekκύων, κυνός (kuōn, kunos)cynosurecyst-capsuleGreekκύστις (kustis)cysticcyt-cellGreekκύτος (kutos)cytoplasm, cnidocyteDRootMeaning in EnglishOriginlanguageEtymology (root origin)English examplesdactyl-finger, toe, digitGreekδάκτυλος (daktulos)dactylology, pterodactyldamn-, -demn-to inflict loss uponLatindamnārecondemn, damnationde-from, away from,removing, downLatindēdeletion, dementia, descenddeb-oweLatindebere, debitusdebitdeca-, dec-,deka-, dek-tenGreekδέκα deka, tendecagram, decahedrondecim-tenth partLatindecimus, tenth; from decem, tendecimal, decimateGreekδέλτα (delta)deltoiddeltdem-peopleGreekδῆμος (dēmos)demagogue, democracyden-ten eachLatindenidenarius, denarydendr-resembling a treeGreekδένδρον (dendron): akin toδρύς, drys, "tree"dendrite, dendrochronologydens-thickLatindensuscondense, densitydent-toothLatindens, dentisdental, dentifrice, dentures

List of Greek and Latin roots in English8derm-skinGreekδέρμα (derma)dermis, epidermis, hypodermicdeuter-secondGreekδεύτερος (deuteros)Deuteronomy, deuterostomedexter-rightLatindexterdexterity, dextrosedexi-rightGreekδεξιός, rightDexiarchiadi-twoGreekδι-dicot, diode, dipoledia-apart, throughGreekδιά (dia)dialysis, diameter, diagramdict-say, speakLatindicere,