THE INTERNATIONAL PHONETIC ALPHABET (revised to 2005)CONSONANTS (PULMONIC) 2005 IPABilabial LabiodentalPlosiveNasalTrillp bmıDentalMF BfvLateralfricativednr T D s zÒ LPost alveolartTap or FlapFricativeAlveolar ApproximantLateralapproximantRetroflex†Palatal c VelarUvular«Ω CJ x V X ‰ ’jÂl SZßPharyngealÔ k g q G N–RGlottal/ ?h HWhere symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a voiced consonant. Shaded areas denote articulations judged impossible.CONSONANTS (NON-PULMONIC)Clicks ñ ÑBilabialDental(Post) alveolarPalato alveolarAlveolar lateralVoiced implosives Î Alveolar fricative(Continued on inside back cover)Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning, Inc. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part.

A Course in PhoneticsCopyright 2010 Cengage Learning, Inc. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part.

Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning, Inc. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part.

A Course inPhoneticsSixth EditionPETER LADEFOGEDLate, University of California, Los AngelesKEITH JOHNSONUniversity of California, BerkeleyAustralia Brazil Japan Korea Mexico Singapore Spain United Kingdom United StatesCopyright 2010 Cengage Learning, Inc. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part.

A Course in Phonetics, SixthEditionPeter Ladefoged and KeithJohnsonPublisher: Michael RosenbergDevelopment Editor: Joan M.FlahertyAssistant Editor: Jillian D’Urso 2011, 2006, 2001 Wadsworth, Cengage LearningALL RIGHTS RESERVED. No part of this work covered by thecopyright herein may be reproduced, transmitted, stored, or usedin any form or by any means graphic, electronic, or mechanical,including but not limited to photocopying, recording, scanning,digitizing, taping, Web distribution, information networks, orinformation storage and retrieval systems, except as permittedunder Section 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act,without the prior written permission of the publisher.Editorial Assistant: Erin PassMedia Editor: Amy GibbonsMarketing Manager: ChristinaSheaMarketing Coordinator: RyanAhernMarketing CommunicationsManager: Laura LocalioContent Project Manager:Rosemary WinfieldArt Director: Cate Rickard BarrPrint Buyer: Betsy DonagheyText Permissions Manager:Margaret Chamberlain-GastonProduction Service:Pre-PressPMGFor product information andtechnology assistance, contact us at Cengage LearningCustomer & Sales Support, 1-800-354-9706.For permission to use material from this text or product,submit all requests online at permissions questions can be emailed [email protected] of Congress Control Number: 2009938969ISBN-13: 9781428231269ISBN-10: 1-4282-3126-9Wadsworth20 Channel Center StreetBoston, MA 02210USAPhoto Manager: John HillCover Designer: Lisa DevenishCompositor: Pre-PressPMGCengage Learning is a leading provider of customized learningsolutions with office locations around the globe, includingSingapore, the United Kingdom, Australia, Mexico, Brazil and Japan.Locate your local office at Learning products are represented in Canada byNelson Education, Ltd.For your course and learning solutions, any of our products at your local college store or at ourpreferred online store in Canada1 2 3 4 5 6 7 13 12 11 10 09Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning, Inc. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part.

This book has always been forLiseThegnKatieThis edition is dedicated to Jenny.Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning, Inc. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part.

ContentsPrefacexPART I: INTRODUCTORY CONCEPTS 1CHAPTER 1Articulation and Acoustics2Speech Production 2Sound Waves 6Places of Articulatory Gestures 8The Oro-Nasal Process 13Manners of Articulation 14Stop 14Oral Stop 14Nasal Stop 14Fricative 14Approximant 15Lateral (Approximant) 15Additional Consonantal Gestures 15The Waveforms of Consonants 17The Articulation of Vowel Sounds 19The Sounds of Vowels 21Suprasegmentals 23Exercises 29CHAPTER 2Phonology and Phonetic Transcription33The Transcription of Consonants 35The Transcription of Vowels 38Consonant and Vowel Charts 42Phonology 45Exercises 48Performance Exercises 52viCopyright 2010 Cengage Learning, Inc. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part.

CONTENTSviiPART II ENGLISH PHONETICS 55CHAPTER 3The Consonants of English56Stop Consonants 57Fricatives 65Affricates 67Nasals 67Approximants 68Overlapping Gestures 69Rules for English Consonant AllophonesDiacritics 77Exercises 77Performance Exercises 82CHAPTER 4English Vowels7285Transcription and Phonetic Dictionaries 85Vowel Quality 87The Auditory Vowel Space 88American and British Vowels 89Diphthongs 92Rhotic Vowels 94Unstressed Syllables 96Tense and Lax Vowels 98Rules for English Vowel Allophones 100Exercises 102Performance Exercises 105CHAPTER 5English Words and Sentences107Words in Connected Speech 107Stress 111Degrees of Stress 113Sentence Rhythm 116Intonation 118Target Tones 127Exercises 131Performance Exercises 134Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning, Inc. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part.

viiiCONTENTSPART III GENERAL PHONETICS 135CHAPTER 6Airstream Mechanisms and Phonation TypesAirstream Mechanisms 136States of the Glottis 148Voice Onset Time 151Summary of Actions of the GlottisExercises 157Performance Exercises 160CHAPTER 7Consonantal Gestures156163Articulatory Targets 163Types of Articulatory Gestures 172Stops 172Nasals 174Fricatives 174Trills, Taps, and Flaps 175Laterals 178Summary of Manners of ArticulationExercises 181Performance Exercises 183CHAPTER 8Acoustic Phonetics136180187Source/Filter Theory 187Tube Models 190Perturbation Theory 192Acoustic Analysis 193Acoustics of Consonants 198Interpreting Spectrograms 204Individual Differences 212Exercises 215CHAPTER 9Vowels and Vowel-like Articulations217Cardinal Vowels 217Secondary Cardinal Vowels 222Vowels in Other Accents of English224Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning, Inc. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part.

CONTENTSixVowels in Other Languages 226Advanced Tongue Root 228Rhotacized Vowels 229Nasalization 231Summary of Vowel Quality 232Semivowels 232Secondary Articulatory Gestures 234Exercises 237Performance Exercises 238CHAPTER 10Syllables and Suprasegmental Features243Syllables 243Stress 249Length 251Timing 252Intonation and Tone 254Stress, Tone, and Pitch Accent LanguagesExercises 261Performance Exercises 263CHAPTER 11Linguistic Phonetics260267Phonetics of the Community and of the IndividualThe International Phonetic Alphabet 268Feature Hierarchy 272A Problem with Linguistic Explanations 277267Controlling Articulatory Movements 278Memory for Speech 281The Balance between Phonetic Forces 284Performance Exercises 286Appendix A: Additional Material for Transciption 293Appendix B: Suggestions for Contributors to the Journal of the InternationalPhonetic Association 295Notes 299Glossary 305Further Reading 313Index 317Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning, Inc. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part.

PrefaceThe sixth edition marks a transition in A Course in Phonetics. This is the first edition to appear since the death of Peter Ladefoged. When I was asked by his widowJenny Ladefoged and publisher Michael Rosenberg to produce this new edition ofthe Course, I was honored but also quite daunted. Through five editions, this bookhas been an almost ideal tool for teaching phonetics. When you start from such ahigh point, there is a lot of room to go down and not much room to go up.As in previous editions of this book, there is an introduction to how speech isproduced, a description of speech in acoustic terms, and instruction in practicalphonetic skills. These approaches all use phonetic transcription. Whether you area speech pathologist, an opera singer, a linguist, an actor, or any other student ofspeech, you need to be able to represent the sounds of speech by using the symbolsof the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA). This is the accepted way of recordingobservations of what people say. Ordinary spelling does not allow you to representall the subtle variations that occur when different people talk. Learning to use theIPA symbols is an essential part of phonetics.One of the main changes in this new edition is that the sections on acousticphonetics and speech motor control go deeper than those in the fifth edition did.The aim of the acoustic phonetics sections is to help students use widely availabletools for digitally inspecting and manipulating speech. However, instructors whoprefer the traditional system of teaching only articulatory phonetics to start willstill find it possible to do so by simply skipping the acoustics sections. Inclusionof new material on speech motor control is meant to provide a firmer foundation for the understanding of speech production, and the performance exercisesin each chapter provide a framework for students to practice the sounds of theworld’s languages.In this edition, the discussion of phonetics as a subdiscipline of linguistics hasbeen reframed to focus on how speech style impacts linguistic description and onthe types of knowledge that we encounter in studying phonetics. Although someinstructors will not wish to emphasize a general theoretical framework for phonetics, we all (including our students) adopt a framework of some sort either implicitlyor explicitly. This book has always included, in Chapter 11, an explicit discussionof how phonetics relates to general linguistics, and I’ve updated that discussion toinclude the difference between private phonetic knowledge (the more cognitive aspects of phonetics) and public phonetic knowledge (aspects of phonetics that areshared in a speech community). In this context, we can separate phonetic observations that are relevant for linguistic description from phonetic observations that mayhave only an indirect bearing on language.The text has also been updated and clarified in numerous other ways. For instance, the glottal stop is introduced earlier, Canadian raising is mentioned inxCopyright 2010 Cengage Learning, Inc. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part.

PREFACExiconnection with flapping in English, the phonological status of [ ŋ ] in English isplaced in historical context, MRI images of vocal tracts are used to illustrate somespeech sounds (where the previous edition relied exclusively on x-ray tracings), andexamples of real conversational speech are used to illustrate English sentences. Youwill find many other such small changes.Part of what makes the Course such a great book is its authoritativeness. Duringhis lifetime, Peter Ladefoged was rightfully described as the world’s greatest living phonetician, and now it can be safely said that he was one of the greatest andmost important phoneticians ever. The authoritativeness of the Course derives fromPeter’s extensive fieldwork around the world. Almost all of the examples that youwill find in this book were recorded by him personally as he worked with nativespeakers of the languages illustrated. His rigorously scientific approach to studyingthe phonetic properties of speech sounds (see his book Phonetic Data Analysis: AnIntroduction to Fieldwork and Instrumental Techniques) provides a foundation forthe observations presented in the book and greatly enriched our understanding ofphonetics around the world. All of this information is retained in this edition and,where appropriate, I have updated and expanded it.The second main ingredient that makes this such a great book is that it is studentfriendly. Peter and Jenny Ladefoged worked as a team to ensure that the esotericmaterial of sagittal sections, gestures, and sound waves was presented in a way thatis both engaging and understandable. A key student-friendly feature of the book thathas been retained for this edition is the accompanying CD of recorded audio files.Icons in the margins of this book indicate corresponding material on the CD.A COURSE IN PHONETICS CD-ROMThe CD that accompanies A Course in Phonetics, which was originally producedmainly by Jenny Ladefoged for the fifth edition, contains recorded examples ofspeech sounds and intonation patterns that are keyed to discussion in the book. It isan essential tool for studying phonetics. I have added a few new examples to the CDand converted the audio files into the more widely used WAV format.The CD has a wealth of material that is integral to a good understanding of phonetics, and it is easy to navigate. Clicking on the title A Course in Phonetics on thetitle page of the CD leads to the list of contents. Clicking on the first entry, “IPA,”leads to the chart of the complete International Phonetic Alphabet and to pronunciations that are associated with every sound. Every chapter of this book has links tosections that provide data for that chapter (corresponding to CD icons in the marginsof the book). Clicking the chapter title leads to recordings of nearly all the words inthe tables and many of the examples cited in the text. Clicking the other links leadsto the exercises in the book, including the performance exercises that afford practice in making the sounds of language. The CD also includes an index of languages(nearly 100) so that you can look up a language and hear its sounds. The index ofsounds lists sounds by name (e.g., creaky voice, clicks in Zulu) that lead to recordings of those sounds. Clicking “Map Index” leads to a world map with