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ATP 3-90.97Mountain Warfare and Cold Weather Operations 35,/ DISTRIBUTION RESTRICTION: Approved for public release. Distribution is unlimited.This publication supersedes FM 3-97.6, dated 28 November 2000 and ATTP 3-97.11, dated28 January 2011.Headquarters Department of the Army

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ATP 3-90.97HeadquartersDepartment of the ArmyWashington, DC, 29 April 2016Army Techniques PublicationNo. 3-90.97Mountain Warfare and Cold WeatherOperationsContentsPagePREFACE. vINTRODUCTION . viiChapter 1THE ENVIRONMENT . 1-1Present Imperative for Mountain Doctrine . 1-1Mountainous Environment . 1-2Cold Environment . 1-3Influence of Oceans and Land Masses . 1-5Terrain Characteristics . 1-5Terrain Analysis . 1-7Cold Weather Characteristics . 1-8Mountain Classifications . 1-12Weather . 1-13Chapter 2INTELLIGENCE . 2-1Plan and Direct . 2-1Collect . 2-2Produce . 2-3Disseminate . 2-3Analyze and Assess . 2-3Chapter 3OPERATIONS . 3-1Planning Considerations. 3-1Mission Command Considerations . 3-1The Offense . 3-2Offensive tasks . 3-3Forms of Maneuver . 3-6The Defense . 3-7Mobile Defense . 3-9Area Defense . 3-9Distribution Restriction: Approved for public release. Distribution is unlimited.This publication supersedes FM 3-97.6, dated 28 November 2000 and ATTP 3-97.11, dated 28 January 2011.i

ContentsReverse Slope Defense . 3-10Retrograde . 3-10Stability Operations . 3-11Civil Considerations . 3-11Operational Advantages and Disadvantages . 3-11Chapter 4MANEUVER AND MOVEMENT . 4-1Air Movement . 4-1Mounted Movement . 4-1Dismounted Movement . 4-3Reconnaissance and Surveillance . 4-9Chapter 5ENGINEERING . 5-1Organization . 5-1Mobility . 5-2Counter-Mobility . 5-4Survivability . 5-5General Engineering . 5-6Chapter 6SUSTAINMENT . 6-1General Planning Considerations . 6-1Supply . 6-3Chapter 7AVIATION . 7-1Planning Considerations . 7-1Reconnaissance. 7-2Air Assault Support . 7-4Electronic Warfare. 7-7Offensive Air Support Planning Considerations . 7-8Aviation Ground Support Planning Considerations . 7-10Aviation Logistic Support in a Mountainous Environment PlanningConsiderations . 7-10Chapter 8FIRES . 8-1Organization for Artillery . 8-1Movement and Positioning . 8-1Acquisition and Observation . 8-3Survey Operations . 8-5Targeting . 8-5Munitions . 8-6Mortars . 8-7Air Support . 8-7Naval Surface Fires. 8-8Nonlethal effects . 8-8Inormation Operations . 8-8Fire Support Coordination Measures . 8-9Artillery Logistics . 8-9Small Arms . 8-10Ground Based Air Defense Considerations . 8-11iiATP 3-90.9729 April 2016

ContentsChapter 9COMMUNICATIONS . 9-1Planning Considerations. 9-1Requirements Identification . 9-1Communications Systems Comparison . 9-2Chapter 10TRAINING CONSIDERATIONS . 10-1Military Mountaineering Skill Sets . 10-1Northern Warfare Training Center . 10-4Army Mountain Warfare School . 10-4Special Forces Command Mountaineering Warfare Training Detachment. 10-4Marine Corps Mountain Warfare Training Center . 10-4Navy Sea-Air-Land (SEAL) Team Cold Weather Maritime Course . 10-7Army National Guard High Altitude Aviation Training . 10-7Interagency Training . 10-7Coalition Training in Mountain Warfare . 10-7Training Charts . 10-7Appendix AALTITUDE AND ENVIRONMENTAL HAZARDS . A-1Appendix BMOUNTAIN WEATHER DATA . B-1Appendix CARMY COLD WEATHER UNIFORM AND EQUIPMENT POSTURE . C-1Appendix DARMY COMPATIBLE HEATERS AND TENTS . D-1Appendix EMILITARY MOUNTAINEERING EQUIPMENT . E-1GLOSSARY . Glossary-1REFERENCES . References-1INDEX . Index-1FiguresFigure 1-1. Mountain Regions of the World. 1-2Figure 1-2. Cold Regions of the World . 1-4Figure 1-3. Extent of Boreal Forests (Taiga) . 1-6Figure 1-4. Daylight Chart . 1-12Figure 1-5. Wind Chill Chart . 1-15Figure 3-1. Reverse Slope Defense . 3-10TablesTabel 1-1. States of Interest . 1-1Table 1-2. Operational Terrain Classifications . 1-13Table 1-3. Dismounted Mobility Classifications . 1-13Table 4-1. Rates of March for Unit Movement . 4-4Table 9-1. Communications Planning Requirements . 9-2Table 9-2. Communications Systems Comparison . 9-529 April 2016ATP 3-90.97iii

ContentsTable 10-1. Army Mountain Training Strategy . 10-1Table 10-2. Summer Individual Mountain Training . 10-8Table 10-3. Cold Weather/Mountain-Individual Training . 10-9Table 10-4. Marine Corps Mountain Collective Training. 10-9Table 10-5. Mountain Aviation Training . 10-9Table A-1. Altitude Effects Table . A-2Table B-1 Cold Temperature Categories . B-1Table C-1 Temperature Zone 1: 55 F (15 C) to 33 F (0 C) . C-1Table C-2 Temperature Zone 2: 32 F (0 C) to 14 F (-10 C) .